3) выделение подлежащего включению в реферат материала и исключение ненужного,
4) составление реферата.
ТЕХНИКА ПОЭТАПНОГО РЕФЕРИРОВАНИЯ СВОДНЫЙ РЕФЕРАТ ПО СЕМИ СТАТЬЯМ О ТЕЛЕСНЫХ НАКАЗАНИЯХ В АНГЛИЙСКИХ ШКОЛАХ
Spare the rod!
by James Calway
During Parliament's next session the Government intends introducing legislation to abolish the cat and the birching of juvenile delinquents. In particular contrast to this will be the continuance of corporal punishment in our schools. The Home Secretary would do well to make provision in his Bill for the abolition of this practice.
Although many teachers abhor the use of the cane, regarding it as a medieval relic, others believe it to be the only means of ensuring discipline.
Does the cane secure obedience from schoolchildren? May be, but teachers must constantly use it to display authority. In consequence he gains a reputation as a martinet and is unable to get the best from his pupils. Moreover, its use suggests a convenient method of ensuring orders by force, and not by explanation of right and wrong. Exclusive use of the cane tends to encourage antisocial behaviour. The most caned boy in my school was regarded as a hero and many of us sought to emulate him. Psychologists claim great harm is done to the sensitive child by corporal punishment. They contend it retards development and fosters emotions of hate and hostility.
Why, then, must we allow corporal punishment to continue in our schools? The Soviet Union, China, Czechoslovakia, Holland, and oddly enough, Bavaria, have dispensed with it. Why don't we?
(Daily Worker, October 4, 1957)
Дискуссия по этому вопросу началась на страницах газеты английских коммунистов через десять лет, когда в апреле 1967 года была опубликована следующая статья Розмэри Смолл.
It's about time the cane went
by Rosemary Small
I am surprised that there doesn't seem to have been any reaction to the "Keep the cane" decision taken by the National Association of Schoolmasters. Is it that people aren't surprised because they don't expect anything but reactionary policies from
the N. A. $.? Or Is it that at best apathy, or worst, sympathy about corporal punishment? It was quite a surprise to me to learn from the Plowden Report that "the overwhelming majority (between 80 and 90 per cent) of the teaching profession are against the abolition of the corporal punishment, and that public opinion appears to be in favour of its retention and considerable majority of parents agree to its occasional use."